By Alex Vukasin
Are teams really making use of their first round picks? Have scouts been able to pinpoint the best talent with their first round picks, or is the draft round not a significant indicator of the talent and future of players in the league?
To answer this question, I analyzed the first and second round players drafted to the NBA from 2005 to 2014. All players who were drafted and played at least one game were included in the analysis, in order to identify only the players who have had NBA experience.
The response variable throughout the analysis was the draft round, while the explanatory variables were games played, years played, minutes played in total, total rebounds, field goal percentage, three-point percentage, free throw percentage, minutes per game, points, points per game, rebounds per game, assists, and assists per game.
Advanced statistics used as explanatory variables in this study were “win shares”, (the number of wins contributed to a player), win shares per 48 minutes, “box plus-minus”, (the number of points out of the past 100 possessions a player contributes to his team above the average player), and “value over replacement player”, (the number of points a player scores on average given 100 team possessions over a replacement player compared to an average team over the 82-game schedule).
These variables created all share the common rule that a higher value resulted in a better career, while a lower value resulted in a less successful career. Below is a summary of all the variables.
Correlation Analysis: Positive among Performance Indicators, Negative with Round
The method used to test whether there was a causal relationship between “round” and all of these explanatory variables began by analyzing the correlation matrix of all the variables using STATA (Figures 1a and 1b). Although all the variables have a negative correlation with “round”, none are very high, as no value exceeds -0.5. There are also positive correlation coefficients between many of the explanatory variables, so it was not possible to include all the variables in one single regression without having multi-collinearity issues.
Regression Analysis: Performance Variables to Predict Round
Next, I ran some regressions to test which performance variables could help predict the player’s draft round, which would indeed suggest a relationship between the draft round and the player’s career performance.
In Figure 2a, field goal percent, minutes per game, rebounds per game and points per game all decrease as round increases, while minutes per game is the only statistically significant value (at 0.05 significance). This result seems to be notable as it supports the negative correlations between the explanatory variables and “round” as well as the fact that the correlation between “round” and minutes per game was the highest among the relationships between explanatory and response variables. Single regression tests were then conducted between each explanatory variable and response variable “round” in order to account for the high correlation between the explanatory variables (these regressions are not shown). All of these tests result in a negative coefficient for the explanatory variable that is significant at a level of 0.05.
Due to all of these factors having negative but small correlation coefficients with “round” and negative coefficients of significance for each single linear regression, it seems probable that the round in which a player is picked has a slight relationship with how their career will turn out. Although the correlations are not extremely high, the fact that there is a common negative relationship between all of these variables and “round” leads me to believe that there could be other variables indicative of success besides those listed which could be strongly correlated with “round”, that I could study further in another analysis.
Figure 1a: Performance variables negatively correlated with Round
Figure 1b: Performance variables positively correlated with each other
Figure 2a: Regression of Round with Field Goal Percent, Minutes per Game, Rebounds per Game and Points per Game
Editor’s Note: Edits have been made for clarity.